CIL conduct environmental assessment inspection services in India. degradation products, which are also very mobile and persistent. Monitoring studies show that alachlor levels in surface water result in effects on aquatic plants and indirectly on aquatic animals (EPA, 1998). Detailed baseline environmental assessment and impact studies conducted prior to the undertaking of any potential FeMn crust or nodule mining will help resource managers, policymakers, and other stakeholders understand likely system response. Key scientific questions include characterization of the biodiversity, degree of endemism, and ecosystem resilience on seamounts permissive for FeMn crust mining, as well as assessing the capacity for seamount habitats to recover after disturbance. Beyond physical perturbation from removal of FeMn crusts, fragments and crushed particles of crusts added to the water column during extraction have the potential to sorb micronutrients, making them unavailable to biota, whereas crust particles that encounter an intense oxygen minimum zone could release metals to seawater. For nodules, an additional environmental concern is the disturbance of sediments along the mining path and the associated sediment plume, both of which may cause release of toxic metals to bottom waters and impact benthic habitats of sediment hosted and sessile nodule hosted biota. Mining companies have developed extraction equipment to partly mitigate these problems, as well as planned for unmined corridors with in the ore field to allow migration of larvae and repopulation of impacted species. Another strategy is to mine down current from reference sites with equivalent ecosystems so that larvae would be naturally transported to the mined area. However, the substrate for sessile biota is the nodules themselves, and the ecosystem will be compromised unless another hard substrate is deposited in the mined area. Predictive modelling approaches to the environmental assessment of running waters are particularly appropriate where the focus of monitoring is on overall ecosystem health, not just water quality. An important reason for this is that they combine information on a variety of environmental variables and the associated macroinvertebrate or fish assemblages. A range of sites are sampled in reference or least impacted condition for their biological communities. A model is constructed predicting the probability of occurrence of taxa at those sites based on measurements of a suite of environmental variables that are not affected by human activity. A test site is then assessed by evaluating how many of the collected taxa at a site are predicted to be present if there is no anthropogenic disturbance and is expressed as an observed/expected ratio. Globally, this is probably the most widely adopted approach for assessing the structural component of ecosystem health, although to the best of our knowledge it has only been applied to running water and not still water habitats. Many factors go into an environmental assessment, which must adhere to criteria to determine the best approach for addressing a pollution problem. Overall protection of human health and environment, Compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, Long-term effectiveness and permanence, Reduction of toxicity, mobility, or volume through treatment, Short-term effectiveness, Ease of implementation, Cost, State acceptance, Community acceptance.
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